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   2010| July-December  | Volume 8 | Issue 16  
    Online since December 22, 2016

 
 
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ARTICLES
Aviation Dentistry: "the neglected field by dentists in India". A Review Article
P Anuradha, Shivanjali Grover
July-December 2010, 8(16):36-39
Aviation dentistry is concerned with evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of diseases, disorders or conditions related to oral cavity, maxillofacial area or adjacent and associated structures and their impact on the body, of people travelling as passengers or aircrew members themselves. At high altitude, the oxygen decreases and has a deleterious effect on teeth, fillings, gums and the mouth. Barodontalgia is an emergency condition which needs immediate treatment. The tooth damage is experienced when there are inferior quality restorations and unrestored teeth with and without caries. Reduced atmospheric pressure has effect on retention factors of denture. A common complaint of long range fighter pilots is that decrease in oxygen at high altitude induces xerostomia. Dental problems are not a reason enough for grounding the patients for treatment. Lack of proper examination or lack of co operation can often lead to severe dental problems for the aircrews. Therefore, proper analysis and treatment before planning to travel is must for aircrews.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  1,362 165 -
Assessment of psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics in young adults aged 18-25 years in Bangalore city
MK Vanlshree, MR ShankarAradhya, GK Umashankar, C Jyothi
July-December 2010, 8(16):53-59
Objective: To assess the Psychosocial hnpact of dental aesthetics in Young adults aged 18-25 years among Oxford Group of Educational Institutes in Bangalore City. Method: - Four of the nine colleges were selected from the Oxford Group of Educational Institutes randomly and a sample size of 277 was drawn systematically from these colleges. Psychosocial impact was assessed using PIDAQ and Dental aesthetics was assessed using DAI (WHO 1997). Results: The results showed that there was a significant association between dental aesthetics on dental self-confidence, followed by dental aesthetic concern of psychosocial impact scale. There was no significant difference was observed for gender. Conclusion: The dental aesthetics have a significant impact on psychosocial aspects of human life irrespective of the gender. However the social impact of dental aesthetics was not clearly shown for those with requirement of slight and definite treatment.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  1,380 100 -
Culture and Oral Health - A Review
Shreedhar Reddy, Joseph John, S Saravanan, I Meignana Arumugam
July-December 2010, 8(16):163-167
Numerous lines of evidence have been established on how culture influence the general health, oral health, nutrition, epidemiology, utilization of oral health services, rendering treatment and in modifying the attitude towards cultural taboos. Culture includes moral sentiments defining good and bad thoughts, feelings and conduct, ideologies including religious and secular beliefs, and knowledge as well as the entire repertoire of cultural symbols and their meaning, including language. Patients' individual preferences and behavioral risk factors are intimately related to their socio-demographic and cultural background.
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  1,208 163 -
Oral cancer prevalence, assessment of various risk factors among oral cancer patients attending Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore
GV Jagannatha, SS Hiremath
July-December 2010, 8(16):66-71
Background: Cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx cause more deaths than all other oro-facial diseases and disorders combined, yet they have not always received adequate attention from the medical and dental communities. Objectives : i) To find out the prevalence of oral cancer in relation to frequent site of occurrence, ii) To find out the various risk factors associated with oral cancer and iii) To recommend appropriate preventive measures. Methodology: Observational cross-sectional study of oral cancer prevalence among oral cancer patients attending Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology (KMIO), Bangalore, Karnataka, India was undertaken. All the oral cancer patients reporting between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 were included in the study. The data was collected through a pre-tested questionnaire from the hospital cancer registry. Categorical data was analysed using Chi-square test. Results: The study population constituted total of 543 patients with 61.5% females and 38.5% males. Oral cancer accounted for 9.5% of the total cancer patients with 60.1% females and 39.9% males. The mean age of patients was 54.58 years. Majority of patients were illiterates (76.4%), belonged to unskilled group (75%), with low family income (95.4%) from rural areas (53.1%). Most patients had the habit of using smokeless tobacco (73.2%) with more number of females (75.5%). Carcinoma of buccal mucosa (40.4%) was the most common oral cancer with significantly higher proportion of females. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that prevalence of oral cancer is high among tobacco users especi.ally among women and there is an urgent need to implement and sustain appropriate preventive measures and oral cancer screening programmes for the community.
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  1,117 92 -
Ergonomics in Dental Practice
GC Shivakumar, S Sahana, Sabyasachi Saha
July-December 2010, 8(16):1-7
Dentists constitute a group of professionals who are likely to become exposed to biological health hazards. Dental professionals are susceptible to a number of occupational hazards like stressful situations, latex hypersensitivity as well as factors leading to the musculoskeletal system disorders (MSD's) and the diseases of the peripheral nervous system. MSD's accounts to a major percentage of burnout in dentist bringing down the productivity by less than 50%. Ergonomics means laws of (nomos) work (ergon). It is science of adapting the job and I or the equipment and the human to each other for optimal safety and productivity. 'Ibis reviews aims to discuss the various work related MSD's related to poor ergonomics, factors causing injury and suggests certain preventive measures to deal with it.
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  1,086 102 -
Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs of Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation Drivers and Employees in Mysore Division
SChaithanya Reddy, CVK Reddy
July-December 2010, 8(16):221-227
Objectives: l. To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of drivers and other employees working in KSRTC of Mysore Division. 2. To suggest measures to improve their existing oral health status. Materials and Methods: Prior permission was obtained from the Divisional Manager, KSRTC, Mysore Division. The study was conducted in 6 depots of rural division and 4 depots of urban division among 4 groups of employees namely drivers, conductors, workshop mechanics, and administrative staff. All the available 1434 members were examined with their consent. Through questionnaire information regarding demographic details, dietary habits, oral hygiene practices, and personal habits was obtained. The oral health status was recorded on the WHO Oral Health Assessment Form 1997 (modified). The examination was carried out under natural light by using mouth mirrors, and CPI probe. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was (45.7%) among the drivers as compared to the other employees (37.2%) in the present study. The prevalence of periodontal disease was higher among the drivers (72.3%) than the other employees (61.6%). 38.5% of the drivers needed restorations whereas 42.1% conductors, 46.4% mechanics and 42.7% office staff needed restorations. The percentage of drivers needing extractions was 85.7% as compared to the other employees (76.9% conducters, 82.5% mechanics and 79% of the office staff). Conclusion: 1. The prevalence of dental caries was higher (45.7%) among the drivers than the other employees (37.2%) in the present study. The difference may be due to a higher amount of sweet consumption (47.9%) and poor oral hygiene practices (80.3%) among drivers as compared to the other employees (25% and 73.2%). 2. In the current study the prevalence of periodontal disease was higher among the drivers (72.3%) than the other employees (61.6%). This difference is due to a higher percentage of smokers among the drivers (44.7%) than the other employees (23.6%).
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  1,075 94 -
Travel (Motion) Sickness: A Review
P Anuradha, Shivanjali Grover
July-December 2010, 8(16):39-43
Travel (Motion) sickness is a condition in which a disagreement exists between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system's sense of movement. It is based on currently widely accepted "sensory conflict or neural mismatch theory". Teeth are in close proximity to the brain's bone structure and its soft tissue. Any force, chemical, electrical, or imbalance in the pressure on the teeth or absence of support for the teeth or any other type of disturbance in our teeth is directly transmitted to the brain and can result in motion (travel) sickness. When dissimilar metals are placed in our mouth, an electrical circuit between the teeth can be setup and disrupt the brain's electrical functions. It is recommended that each individual should seek advice with regard to travel plans from the dental practitioner most familiar with their case. About 33% of people are susceptible to motion sickness in mild circumstances, nearly 66% of people are susceptible in more severe conditions. Effective drugs for combating motion sickness include antihistaminics, antimuscarinics, serotoninergic receptor agonists etc, however complete information concerning physiological basis of motion sickness is still poorly known and requires further research.
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  1,076 81 -
Efficacy of two toothpastes in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis
KW Prasad, R Sohani, G Rajesh, H Suprlya Rao, R Kalyanpur, SB Javali
July-December 2010, 8(16):24-31
Objective: To assess the efficacy of Anchor Toothpaste (test) in reducing of plaque and gingivitis as compared to Colgate total (control). Method: 90 subjects participated in double blinded randomized clinical trial for four weeks. Plaque and gingivitis scores of study subjects were recorded at baseline, test and control dentifrices were randomly allocated to them and they were instructed to use the dentifrices twice daily. They were reexamined at two and four weeks for plaque and gingivitis. Results: In test group, there was reduction in mean GI scores by 2.92% and 8.43% at two & four weeks respectively and reduction in mean PI scores by 17.34% and 14.47% at two & four weeks respectively. In control group, GI scores reduced by 4.26% and 7.05% at two & four weeks respectively and PI scores reduced by 22.01% and 19.64% at two & four weeks respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in plaque and gingivitis reductions between the two dentifrices. Conclusions: Anchor tooth paste and Colgate total were equally effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis scores among study subjects.
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  1,032 95 -
Oral Hygiene Status of School - Going Muslim Population Associated with the use of Miswak in Lucknow, India
Shafaat Mohammad, Sabyasachi Saha, Sahana Srinivas
July-December 2010, 8(16):72-77
Introduction: The oral hygiene habits in certain population depend upon various factors such as cultural background, religious norms, educational levels and socioeconomic status. 'Miswak' as an oral hygiene aid is in widespread use among muslim population due to religious norms. This study has taken up to evaluate the efficacy of 'miswak' as an oral hygiene aid. Goal: The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the oral hygiene status in young adult population of lucknow city who use 'miswak', toothbrush & toothpaste or combination of both for their routine oral hygiene practices. Materials & Methods: The study population has been selected from residential and non-residential madrasa schools in lucknow city. It is comprised of strictly 'miswak' users group i, toothbrush & tooth paste users group ii & combination of both group iii with age ranging from 12-20 years. assessment of oral hygiene status was done by using the following indices- gingival index (Loe & Silness 1963), oral hygiene index simplified (green and vermillion 1964) and plaque index (Silness & Loe H 1964). Result: Results indicated that, there was no statistically significant difference of OHI-S score and plaque index score between groups (p= 0.104 & (p= 0.103) respectively. on the other hand, group 1 had a significantly lower mean gingival index score compared to group ii (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The study concluded that apart from gingival status, miswak users exhibited little improved plaque and OHI-S score status as compared to strict toothbrush users.
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  1,017 90 -
Pediatricians Perception about the Use of Medicated Syrups and Its relation to Dental Caries
K Shree, C Jyothi, T Ramakrishna
July-December 2010, 8(16):8-12
Pediatricians often have a difficult task ensuring the compliance of the patient to a particular medication regime and the use of pleasant tasting syrup has helped in the administration of these drugs. The study aimed to evaluate pediatrician's perception about the use of medicated syrups and to provide baseline data for creating awareness among Pediatricians about the use of medicated syrups and its relation to Dental caries. One hundred and fifty Pediatricians was selected using computer generated random numbers from the list of 453 pediatricians of Bangalore city and were issued a questionnaire focusing on the knowledge and practices with regard to medicated syrups for pediatric use and their relation to dental caries. Pediatricians in this study did not perceive the correct relationship between the presence of fermentable carbohydrates in medicated syrups and its relation to dental caries. Pediatricians should consider the importance of oral health while prescribing medicated syrups and give necessary oral hygiene instructions after intake of the syrup.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  1,038 65 -
Oral Health Status of Aborgines in Mysore, India
Nagesh Bhat, Anil Agrawal, Kailash Asawa
July-December 2010, 8(16):63-65
Aims and Objectives: To assess the oral health status and treatment needs in Kadukurubas and to suggest measures for improving their oral health status. Materials and methods: The study was conducted on Kadukurubas, tribes (aborigines) of H.D. Kote forest, Mysore. All the available 537 Kadukuruba population was examined in their habitat. Also a total of 352 Non-Kadukuruba were examined who were residing in the same area. The oral health status was assessed using modified form of WHO oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Average DMFf among Kadukurubas and non-Kadukurubas was 0.12 and 0.50 respectively (P>O.OS). Prevalence of different stages of Periodontitis was 87.15% and 80.68% respectively (P<0.05). Prevalence of malocclusion was 11.54% and 19.03% respectively (P<0.05). Treatment needs for caries was 13.07% and 37.8% respectively. Conclusion: The lower incidence of dental caries among the Kadukurubas is might be because of their food habits, as raw food still forms a part of their diet and they are away from the civilized food. Unmet treatment needs among the Kadukurubas and non- Kadukurubas shows the lack of awareness, lack of motivation and remoteness of the area is also a contributing factor.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  1,022 58 -
Perception of cross infection control among patients attending a dental college and hospital in Bangalore - A questionnaire study
Mayur Nath, T Reddy
July-December 2010, 8(16):179-185
Background: The problem of cross infection and infection controlling dental practice has become a matter of public concern. While much of the impetus for change has come from within the profession, it is probable that changing public expectations for cross-infection control could also play their part. So a study was conducted about public perception of cross-infection control in dentistry in a dental college and hospital. Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the perception of patients on the use of gloves and facemasks in dental practice, methods of sterilization and the risk of cross-infection. Methodology: Questionnaire survey of patients attending the college and hospital in Bangalore. Results: 149 responded to the questionnaires. Nearly all (85.9%) regarded the use of gloves as necessary, 81.2% felt the facemask was necessary. 51.7% of the respondents said HIV/AIDS is most common transmitted disease in the clinic and 36.2% said all blood related diseases can transmit in the clinic. 82.6% responded that dental assistant should also follow cross infection control procedures. Conclusion: While this survey shows a high level of acceptance of the use of gloves and use of the facemask there is a glaring lack of knowledge about methods of sterilization.. It also reveals a great deal of fear for HIV among the patients.
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  1,005 74 -
Periodontal Health Status and Treatment Needs in Dental Hospital Population Davangere, Karnataka, India
MS Nalini, Shobha Prakash
July-December 2010, 8(16):44-52
Background & Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the periodontal health status and treatment needs in Dental Hospital Population, Davangere, Kamataka State, India. Methods : Total 1501 patients consisting 969 males and 532 females were examined making use of Community Periodontal Index Treatment Needs(CPITN )system. In addition age, sex, Socioeconomic status (SES), occupation, medical history, oral hygiene practices and oral habits on periodontal health and treatment needs was also studied. Results : In total population 20.4% were healthy, 4.7% had bleeding gingiva, 20.5% had calculus, 27% had shallow pockets and 27.4% had deep periodontal pockets. Prevalence of periodontal disease was high and severity increased with age and in males. According to treatment needs 20.4% need no treatment i.e. TN.O, 4.7% were in need of TN-1 i.e. oral hygiene instruction, 47.5% were in need of TN-II i.e. OHI, scaling and root planning and 27.4% were in need of TN-ill i.e. OHI, scaling and root planing with surgical procedure. Interpretation and Conclusion: It was observed that prevalence of periodontal disease was 54.4% in the population examined and severity increased with age and in males compared to females. The major treatment requirement was 'simple periodontal treatment' that could be managed by non-specialist dental resources. These estimates help for the future planning of dental services in Davangere District, Karnataka State, India.
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  1,010 58 -
A Study of feeding habits and it's relation to early childhood caries experience in young children of 1-3 years age in Bangalore city
BS Suma, SS Hiremath
July-December 2010, 8(16):13-19
Early Childhood caries (ECC) is a specific form of rampant caries affecting the primary teeth of infants as a result of improper feeding habits and/or prolonged unrestricted bottle and breast feeding. Method: 440 young children aged between 1-3years attending the pediatric outpatient departments of Government Hospitals in Bangalore city along with their parents formed the study group. First, the clinical examination of the child to assess dental caries experience. Secondly, a questionnaire designed in both English and regional language Kannada to elicit information from parents. Chi-square test is carried out at 5% level of significance (a= 0.05). Result: Among 440 children, majority of them, 11.4% having ECC belongs to 31-36 months of age and 10% children having ECC come from lower lower socio-economic class. Significantly high number of children 33(7.5%) having ECC were on breast and bottle feeding compared to other methods. Conclusions: Prevention of ECC on the whole had been focused on education of mothers mainly to alter the feeding practices and thereby reducing mutans streptococci infection. These educational programs to be focused on prospective parents and new parents.
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  989 77 -
Sugar Substitutes - Reality Check: A Review
NM Roshan, B Sakeenabi
July-December 2010, 8(16):111-120
Sugar (sucrose) being most acceptable sweetening agent in use by mankind, is considered as the "Arch Criminal" in dental caries initiation. Search for suitable sweetening agent which will satisfy all the characteristics of sugar along with being non-cariogenic is going on since decades. At this given point of time there is no such substitute which will replace sugar in all aspects, but, cariogenic potential can certainly be reduced by using sugar substitutes. Recently few sugar substitutes are even considered to have antimicrobial property against caries producing microbes in oral cavity. Although sweetening agents and sugar substitutes are available in market in various forms, how acceptable are they? , what are the public perceptions regarding their use?, and their use in caries prevention are few areas still very much unclear.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  988 77 -
Oral health KAP of first year engineering students of KSR College of Technology, Thiruchengode, the future rulers
Arun P Kumar Prasad, S Shankar
July-December 2010, 8(16):143-147
Background: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward oral health among 17 to 21 year-old students in KSR College of Technology, Thiruchengode. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 652 students who were in the age group of to 21 years studying in KSR College of Technology, Thiruchengode. Data on oral health KAP were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 30 open and closed ended questions. Results: This survey found that only 30.7 percent of the students brush their teeth two or more times a day. Fear of the dentist was the main cause of irregular visit in 36.7 percent of study participants. In this study 26.1 percent responded as the last visit to the dentist was due to pain. The use of other recommended oral hygiene methods (23.9 percent) was found to be less; this also could be attributed to the lack of oral health education and/or the cost of such aids. Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that oral health KAP of study participants are poor and needs to be improved. Systematic community-oriented oral health promotion programs are needed to improve oral health KAP of the students.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  993 64 -
Manually Operated Mobile Air Compressor for use in Dentistry - An Innovation
Md Shafiulla, S Suresh, R Chaitanya
July-December 2010, 8(16):95-97
The conventional compressor that is used for cavity cutting and crown preparation runs with the help of electricity and is useful only in dental clinics where electric power supply is present. In rural areas where electricity is not available, these types of treatments cannot be carried out. Hence there is a need to develop a compressor which runs without electricity and which can be carried to rural areas easily so that people living in remote rural areas also derive the benefit of these treatment methods. The present invention consists of a complete unit of car wheel (i.e. tyre, tube & rim) which is mounted on a mobile metal stand. The tube of the wheel can be inflated by foot operated pump with pressure (psi) measuring device. Other accessories are attached to this, for functioning of the equipment. The outlet from inflated tube is connected to air supply and water supply separately, by means of valves, which can be used to operate airotar and three way syringe that works like the conventional compressor consisting of airotor hand piece and three way syringe. When the tyre is inflated to a pressure of 40 psi, the pressure built in the tyre is sufficient to run the airotor for cutting the tooth structure.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  995 49 -
Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among 6-12 years old school going children in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh - A Cross sectional study
VK Bhardwaj, NC Rao
July-December 2010, 8(16):202-207
Objective: This study was done to examine caries prevalence and treatment needs in 6-12 years old school children in Shimla city - Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Method: A total of 1200 children (594 boys and 606 girls) of 11 govt. schools in Shimla city aged 6-12 years were examined using WHO index, to record the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using chi square test. Results: Dental caries in primary dentition was found among 79.63% and 77.63% of male and female students respectively. 34.01% of male students and 48.02% of female students were affected with dental caries in permanent dentition. Mean deft was higher for males as compared to the females for all age groups. Similarly mean DMFT was higher for males as compared to females for age group 6-7 years whereas for age group 8-9 and 10-12 years females had a higher DMFT than females. Two or more surface and one surface restoration was treatment of choice for both the gender in primary and permanent dentition respectively. Conclusion: High prevalence of dental caries in school children in Shimla city is a cause of concern which point out to the utmost necessity of regular periodic check-up and application of preventive measures and treatment modalities.
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  985 56 -
An Economic Analysis of willingness to pay for Root Canal Treatment for Dental caries in Thoothukudi District, Tamilnadu
S Manickam, R Selvakumar, Pethuru Devadason
July-December 2010, 8(16):208-214
Introduction: Dental caries and periodontal diseases are common and chronic diseases are affirming the modern societies. To a great extent, their prevention and control depend on a person's life style and health seeking behavior. Willingness to pay (WTP) measures an individual's strength of preference for an intervention by the maximum amount of money an individual would sacrifice for that intervention. Objectives: The objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the willingness to pay (WTP) for anterior root canal treatment (RCT) and 2) to analyze the factors associated with willingness to pay. Materials and Methods: 400 patients treated at 4 clinics in Thoothukudi District during the month of March 2010 were selected. The patients between the age of 18 and 50 as the most productive age group were considered for the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the relevant data from the patients at their home. Results: The range in WTP for an anterior RCT was Rs. 1750 (from Rs. 1625 to Rs.3375). The mean WTP for an anterior RCT was Rs. 1954.37. Age, education, monthly income and predominant non vegetarian food habit have the significant association with the WTP for anterior RCT. Conclusions: There is lack of awareness on oral health or the poor paying habit of people for root canal treatment. Educational status which is a proxy for income and wealth status has the significant association with anterior RCT. So the literacy and health education are important factors to create awareness to save the tooth instead of extracting it.
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  978 59 -
Nutritional Status and Dental Caries - A Future Reflecting the Past
Rekha P Shenoy, K Prashanth Shenai
July-December 2010, 8(16):32-35
Optimal nutrition is an essential component in the complex process of maintaining optimal health throughout life. A nutritionally balanced diet with a sufficiency of mineral elements during tooth formation is important for a well-formed caries-resistant tooth. Dental caries occurs only when the right combination of disease determinants coincides with host susceptibility in the right environment. The high prevalence of chronic diseases including dental caries in developing countries has stimulated research efforts to understand the role of nutrition in reduction of risk for these diseases. India is home to millions of underfed children despite its flourishing economy. If the underlying malnutrition is not rectified, it may be difficult to prevent dental caries in spite of the employment of caries preventive measures. Therefore, this paper focuses on the influence of nutritional status on dental caries. It also gives a brief over-view of the dental applications of the food habits of pre- and elementary school children and teenagers I adolescents. The authors conclude that a nutritionally balanced diet, in concert with other oral disease preventive procedures, may provide a sound and acceptable approach in the control of dental caries.
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  954 78 -
Behavioral Changes in Preschool Children; treated With/without Rotary Instruments Using Visual Analogue Scale of Faces
C Nagarathna, BS Shakuntala, Somy Mathew, HK Navin, Maru Viral Pravin
July-December 2010, 8(16):157-162
Aim: The purpose of the study is to assess the anxiety experienced during dental treatment in preschool children with/without rotary instruments using behavioral scale. Study design: 32 Pediatric patients of preschool age, identified with presence of bilateral dental carious lesions extending into dentin, were selected for the study. Carious lesions were removed using conventional rotary instruments on one side and Atraumatic Restorative Treatment approach on other side in the same appointment. Both cavities were restored with Glass ionomer cement [FujiiX].Anxiety scores were determined using 'Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale'[Wong et al,l998] during the various clinical stages of the treatment course. Results: Preschool children were found to relaxed when subjected to ART treatment as compared to rotary approach for removal of carious lesions. Conclusion: This study helped us to provide behavioural measures and introduce children to dentistry in a nonthreatening setting.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  974 57 -
Relation Between Caries and Dental Fluorosis in Relation to Fluoride Levels in Drinking Water in a Rural Area of India
P Srinivas, V Sudhakar
July-December 2010, 8(16):152-156
Objective: The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between caries and dental fluorosis in Indian children living in rural areas at varying water fluoride levels. Method: A total of 402 children (14-16 years old), selected from areas with O.Sppm to 2.02ppm fluoride concentration in the drinking water were examined for caries and dental fluorosis. Scorings were recorded according to the DMF system and Dean's Fluorosis Index. Results: Prevalence of dental fluorosis was 14.2% at 0.8ppm and 55.14% at 2.02ppm. The corresponding caries prevalence and mean DMFI in the areas were 24.4% versus 43.1%, and 0.4 versus respectively. A positive relationship between caries and fluorosis was observed. Conclusion: The present fmdings indicate that dental caries increased with increasing severity of dental fluorosis. Thus, a positive relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis was observed.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  948 82 -
Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards Oral Health among Tibetan School Children at Gurupura, Hunsur, Karnataka
HR Priyadarshini, G Gurudath, YS Manjunath Prasanna
July-December 2010, 8(16):20-23
Aim: To assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards Oral Health among Tibetan School Children at Gurupura. Hunsur, Kamataka. Methodology: A questionnaire study using self administered close ended questionnaire containing 21 questions pertaining to Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards Oral Health was undertaken among 158, 10-16 year old children studying from 5th to 10th standard at Central School for Tibetans, Gurupura. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 10.0 (Statistical PackageSoftware). Statistical significance was determined by Chi-square test. Results: Of the 158 participants, 71(44.9%) were boys and 87(55.1%) were girls. About 41.1% of the participants considered their oral health status as good. About 61.4% of participants knew the importance of teeth. 141(89.2%) agreed that brushing teeth prevents tooth decay and gum disease and 131(82.9%) knew the reason that eating sweets causes tooth decay. A high percentage of about 83.5% of participants were aware of the harmful effects of tobacco. 44(27.8%) had dental problems and 32(20.3%) participants had visited the dentist during last 12 months. While 98.7% of the participants brushed their teeth everyday, a very less percentage of the participants were aware of fluoridated paste. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that oral health Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of the participants is average and requires improvement. Frequent school oral health programs are needed in this direction.
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  959 71 -
Long Known Yet Little Used - Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy - A Review
Chetan Chandra, Devyani Bhateja, OK Bhateja, Sumi Chandra
July-December 2010, 8(16):91-94
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), is basically 100% oxygen inhalation, at a pressure greater than that of sea level, it being 2.4 absolute atmospheres (i.e. ATA ; where 1 ATA = 760 mmHg). When oxygen is used as a drug, the doze is controlled by technologically operated oxygen chamber, which sets the dosage at 100% oxygen and controls its absorption by pressure. Molecular oxygen has a central role in repair, collagen synthesis, matrix formation, angiogenesis, epithelialization and bacterial killing.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  981 47 -
In Vitro Effect of Smokeless Tobacco Extracts on the Growth of Streptococcus Mutans in Relation to Nicotine and Sugar Contents
Mahesh Hiregoudar, R Subramaniam, GM Simpy Mittal Prashant, GN Chandu
July-December 2010, 8(16):174-178
In vitro effect of smokeless tobacco extracts on the growth of Streptococcus mutans in relation to nicotine and sugar contents. Objective: To study the effect of smokeless-tobacco extracts on the growth of Streptococcus mutans. Estimation and assessment of association between sugar and nicotine contents on the growth of Streptococcus mutans. Methodology: Popular brands of unprocessed tobacco, zarda, khaini and snuff were considered for the study. Effect of smokeless tobacco extracts on the growth of Streptococcus mutans was assessed using turbidometric method by reading optical density. Sugar and nicotine contents of smokeless tobacco were estimated using spectrophotometer. Results: Smokeless tobacco has stimulatory effect on the growth of Streptococcus mutans. The enhancing effect on growth of Streptococcus mutans is partially attributed to presence of sugar content in the smokeless tobacco. Nicotine showed no effect on growth of Streptococcus mutans. Conclusion: There is significant association between sugar content of smokeless-tobacco and growth of Streptococcus mutans, irrespective of nicotine content.
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  945 71 -
Antimicrobial Effect of Honey on Plaque Microflora
Minti Kumari, Sabyasachi Saha, Sahana Srinivas
July-December 2010, 8(16):78-82
Introduction: Honey has been used as a medicine throughout the ages. Large volumes of literature reported its effectiveness as a potent anti bacterial and anti-inflammatory agent. lbis study is to investigate anti-microbial properties of honey against some bacterial strains present in dental plaque. Materials & Method: The short term antibacterial effect of honey on plaque microorganism of oral cavity was tested in 10 volunteers. Bacterial colony counts before and after honey application was observed. Magnitude of difference in microbial colony was expressed in unit per ml to identify the role of honey on plaque micro-flora. Results: After application of Honey on all the volunteers, it was observed that the bacterial colony counts of three species namely: Streptococcus mutans, Peptostreptococcus sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were reduced in significant amount, whereas the colony counts of Staphylococcus aureus were reduced but not significantly. Conclusion: The above result is encouraging. To consider honey as a potent antimicrobial agent further studies incorporating more bacterial species are required. Study findings can result invaluable public health intervention.
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  955 59 -
Comparative evaluation of efficacy of Herbal extract, Bis-biguanide and Povidone-iodine containing mouthwash A clinico-microbiological study
Vidya Dodwad, Pradeep Kumar, Komal Arora
July-December 2010, 8(16):129-136
Background: Supragingival plaque control is fundamental to the prevention and management of periodontal diseases. However significant proportions of all individuals fail to practice a high standard of plaque removal. The adjunctive use of chemicals would, therefore appear away of overcoming deficiencies in mechanical tooth cleaning habits. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a herbal mouthrinse (Herboral) as opposed to a mouthrinse containing 0.2% CHX and Povidone-Iodine mouthrinse on gingival health status over time. Method: 60 medically healthy subjects, belonging to both sexes, ranging in age from 18-40 years, participated in the study. All subjects had screening examinations following which they received a complete prophylaxis including scaling and professional tooth cleaning and baseline examination of plaque and gingivitis was performed on each subject and microbiological samples were taken. One group used 20ml of the Herbal mouthrinse preparation for 30s twice daily, second group used 20ml of Povidone-iodine mouthrinse preparation for 30s twice daily and the third group used lOml of the chlorhexidine mouthrinse for 60 seconds twice daily, for a period of 15 days. Subjects were reassessed at 15 days, 1 and 3 months following the initiation of rinsing. Assessment of bacterial morphotypes using Dark Field Microscopy was done. Results: The Chlorhexidine mouthrinse appeared to provide greater plaque and gingivitis inhibitory action which was followed by Herbal mouthwash (which was slightly lower than chlorhexidine) and then povidone-iodine which was least effective and significantly lower when compared to the Herbal and Chlorhexidine mouthrinse. Conclusion: Although less potent than the chlorhexidine gluconate rinse, the herbal rinse was more effective than the Povidone-iodine rinse in inhibiting the growth of oral bacteria.
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  946 62 -
Effect of academic stress on gingival inflammation - A case-control study
KT Chandrasekhar, Bhurugesh J Panseriya, P Basavaraj
July-December 2010, 8(16):103-107
Background: Several co relational questionnaire studies have observed a positive relationship between psychological stress and periodontal diseases. This paper analyses the effects of academic stress on periodontal health in a prospective clinical examination. Material and Methods: 100 medical students, each consisting of 50 students participating in a major academic exam and 50 controls without current academic stress. Bleeding on probing and plaque score was assessed 4 weeks prior to the exam period (baseline) and at the two days before the exam. Results: Severe deterioration in gingival health from baseline to the last exam day were observed more frequently in exam students than in controls. Mean gingival index score increased (1.212) to (1.901), this score is not that much significant in non exam going students. Conclusion: These results further support the hypothesis that psychological stress is a significant risk factor for gingival inflammation. Future studies should examine factors mediating this relationship.
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  949 58 -
Assessment of psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics in young adults aged 18-25 years in Bangalore city
MK Vanishree, MR ShankarAradhya, GK Umashankar, C Jyothi
July-December 2010, 8(16):98-102
Objective: To assess the Psychosocial hnpact of dental aesthetics in Young adults aged 18-25 years among Oxford Group of Educational Institutes in Bangalore City. Method: - Four of the nine colleges were selected from the Oxford Group of Educational Institutes randomly and a sample size of 277 was drawn systematically from these colleges. Psychosocial impact was assessed using PIDAQ and Dental aesthetics was assessed using DAI (WHO 1997). Results: The results showed that there was a significant association between dental aesthetics on dental self-confidence, followed by dental aesthetic concern of psychosocial impact scale. There was no significant difference was observed for gender. Conclusion: The dental aesthetics have a significant impact on psychosocial aspects of human life irrespective of the gender. However the social impact of dental aesthetics was not clearly shown for those with requirement of slight and definite treatment.
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  952 50 -
A Study of Periodontal Status and Treatment Needs Among 15 Years and Above Old Patients Attending Government Dental College, Bangalore
HG Raju, SS Hiremath, Kalwa Pavankumar
July-December 2010, 8(16):83-90
Aim: To assess periodontal status and treatment need among 15 years and above old patient attending Government Dental College, Bangalore. Materials & Methods: The study included 464 patients with an average age group between 15-74 years selected from the Out Patient Department of the Dept of Oral Medicine, Government Dental College & Hospital, Bangalore. Clinical examination was conducted by an investigator as per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. A plain mouth mirror and a CPITN probe were used to record the periodontal status and treatment needs (CPITN Index). Results: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 4 was used for the statistical evaluation. Out of 450 subjects in the examination 18 (4%) had healthy gingiva, 10 (2.22%) had bleeding gums, 220 (48.88%) had supragingival and subgingival calculus (code 2), 143 (31.77%) had shallow pockets of 4.5mm (code 3), and 59 (13.11%) had deep pockets of >6mm (code 4). 18 (4%) (TN-0) had healthy gingiva hence no treatment. 432 (96%) of them needed oral Hygiene instructions (TN-1), 422 (93.78%) needed oral Hygiene instructions and oral prophylaxis (TN 1 & TN 2) and 59 (13.11%) needed complex treatment (TN-3). Conclusion: Considering the periodontal status 450 patients, 96% of patients had one or other form of periodontal diseases and maximum number of patients (48.88%) had supra or sub gingival calculus. As the age advances healthy sextant decreases. The study showed that prevalence of periodontal disease increases with age.
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  935 55 -
Pediatric Syrups and their cariogenic potential
Shenoy Ramya, Hedge Anupama, Rao AshwinI, Rao Arathi
July-December 2010, 8(16):189-192
Objective: This study aimed to determine free sugar concentration and pH of paediatric syrup medicines frequently prescribed by Pediatricians in Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. Materials and Methods: Two different prescribed brands of eight paediatric syrup medicines (n = 16) were randomly chosen to be tested. Qualitative analysis of free sugars was done by peak height comparison with standard sucrose, fructose and glucose using thin layer chromatography. The pH of each medicine was determined using a digital pH meter. The result was expressed as average of replicates from two bottles of each medicine. Results and Conclusions: Sucrose was detected in all types of pediatric syrup medicines along with pH below the critical value of 5.5. High concentration of free sugars and a low pH detected in the syrups indicate their cariogenic and erosive potentials.
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  940 50 -
Socio-Demographic Factors and Knowledge of Primary Oral Preventive Measures Among the Patients Attending a Dental Hospital in Dharwad, India
Ramya Kalyanpur, K.V.V. Prasad
July-December 2010, 8(16):107-110
Objective: To determine the association between socio-demographic factors and knowledge of primary oral preventive measures among the patients attending a dental hospital in India. Materials and Methodology: Present study was conducted among 200 patients attending out-patient department of SDM College of Dental Sciences & Hospital, Dharwad. Convenience sampling method and questionnaire was employed for assessment of knowledge about primary preventive measures for common oral diseases with information on socio demographic factors. Results: 27.5%, 50.0%, 57.5% and 61.0% of study subjects had knowledge on primary preventive measures for dental caries, oral cancer, malocclusion and periodontal disease. A significant higher knowledge (F = 6.2654, p < O.OOl) was observed among subjects with higher education levels (p < O.Ol). Multiple regression analysis revealed that as age increased, knowledge of primary preventive measures increased. Conclusion: Age and education were positively associated other factors like income, marital status and gender had no influence on knowledge about oral primary prevention.
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  925 57 -
Assessment of Sterilization Efficacy of Domestic Pressure Cooker
A Sujatha, L Nagesh, GN Karibasappa
July-December 2010, 8(16):186-188
Background: There is injustice and inequality in the availability of health care services to the economically disadvantaged population. Conducting outreach programs is one of the strategies to overcome the existing disparity. Maintaining aseptic conditions while providing health care with simple and appropriate technology is the need of the hour. Objectives: To assess the sterilization efficacy of domestic pressure cooker maintained at 15 pounds of pressure for various time intervals of 15 minutes, 20 minutes, 25 minutes and 30 minutes. Methods: Bacillus stearothennophilus spore strips were used for testing the sterilization efficacy of pressure cooker. A control strip was tested for the viability of spores. The spore strips were kept in pressure cooker at 15 pounds of pressure at various time intervals of 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes. The processed spore strips were kept in nutrient broth and incubated at 55΀c for 5 days. At the end of 5 days, smears were prepared on slides; gram staining was done and viewed under compound microscopy. Results: Control strip showed gram positive rods indicative of bacillus stearothermophilus under compound microscopy. The spore strips kept in pressure cooker at 15 pounds of pressure at time intervals of 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes did not show any gram positive rods after 5 days of incubation. This clearly indicates that the spores were completely destroyed at all the tested time intervals. Conclusions: Pressure cooker being economically affordable and practically feasible can be used for sterilization at outreach programs and health care centers.
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  925 53 -
Dental Students Opinon and Knowledge about Perception of Dental Caries, its Diagnosis and Prevention
S Shankar, BS Nandhini
July-December 2010, 8(16):137-142
Aim of the Study: The study was carried out to assess the knowledge and attitude about perception of dental caries, its diagnosis and prevention. Materials and Methods: Data was collected using a 30 item pretested, open ended, self administered questionnaire. Students were selected but only 82% students responded (overall response rat,e;;;;82%). Results: The overall the knowledge about the use of fluorides, chlorhexidine and importance of caries activity tests was relatively less. The most unfavourable attitude was performing caries activity tests (59%) and the most undesirable practice noted was regarding non-prescription of fluoride dentifrices (38%).However students tended to emphasize more on the effectiveness of diet counseling (95%).Analysis showed that the dental students were having less knowledge and unfavourable attitude towards diagnosis and management of incipient carious lesion. Conclusion: Efforts are needed to enhance the level of knowledge and attitude of dentists and focus on the strategies to educate and reinforce the use of preventive dentistry.
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  927 49 -
Antibiotic resistance of oral Viridans streptococci among Healthy children of Mysore city
B Ramya, S Sunitha, C.V.K. Reddy
July-December 2010, 8(16):193-198
Introduction: Oral Viridans streptococci are associated with dental caries, infective endocarditis, septicemia and purulent infections of oral and maxillofacial regions. Their emerging resistance to antibiotics in healthy children may represent a potential problem in the management of these infections. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and to compare the frequency of resistance between different species of oral Viridans streptococci to 5 antibiotics. Materials and Methods: An Analytical cross sectional study was designed. Supragingival plaque samples were collected with sterile curettes from 51 healthy children selected by simple random sampling. They were inoculated, incubated and identified. 82 representative colonies of 3 species were sub cultured in blood agar plates and antibiotic susceptibility was tested using Disc diffusion method. Zone of inhibition was measured and was analyzed using SPSS 16. Results: Out of the 82 isolates, 39 S.mutans (47%), 21 S.mitis (26%), 22 S.salivarius (27%) were obtained. Penicillin G resistance was more frequent in overall and in each individual species than other antibiotics which was statistically significant. S.mitis showed highest frequency of resistance to penicillin G (76.2%, P = 0.000) and erythromycin (47.6%, P = 0.002) which was statistically significant. All the isolates were uniformly susceptible to vancomycin.
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  930 44 -
Knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health among patients treated in various Dental clinics in Thoothukudi district, Tamilnadu
S Manickam, R Selvakumar, Pethuru Devadason
July-December 2010, 8(16):215-220
Introduction: Oral health is an integral part of general health; rather oral cavity can rightly be called the gateway of the body. Poor oral health conditions may adversely affect general health. Attainment of oral health is based upon the awareness of dietary habits and oral hygiene practices. Objective: The objective of this study was to measure the knowledge, attitudes and practices on oral health among the patients treated in Thoothukudi district Materials and Methods: 400 patients treated at 4 clinics in Thoothukudi District during the month of March 2010 were selected. The patients between the age of 18 and 50 as the most productive age group were considered for the study. A structured questionnaire with questions related to socio demographic background, oral health knowledge, altitudes and practices was used to collect the relevant data from the patients at their home. Results: 93% of the respondents reported that tooth decay was the major problem and gum disease was the next major problem (41.5%). 301 persons (75.3%) reported eating sweets/ice-cream/ chocolates as the main factor causing dental problems. 276 (69.5%) persons reported not brushing regularly was the other major reason for dental problems. Majority of the respondents 344 persons (86.0%) used paste for cleaning and only 56 patients (14%) used powder for cleaning the teeth. 89.8% (359) of the study population had never used any oral hygiene aids. Conclusions: Oral health knowledge, attitudes and practices in the study population is reasonably good, but still dental education is needed to improve oral health. To improve the overall dental health the importance oral health education on the ill effects of personal habits like smoking, alcohol and chewing pan masala to be stressed.
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  918 54 -
Perception of Dental Education in India among Dental Students and Staffs - A Pilot Survey
S Shankar, Arun P Kumar Prasad, Boris A Bhim
July-December 2010, 8(16):148-151
Aim of the Study: To determine the perception of dental students and faculty members about dental education in India. Materials and Methods: A pilot survey was conducted and close ended questionnaire was used. Study consisted of 131 undergraduate dental students and 42 U.G and P.G faculty members of K.S.R. Institute of Dental Science and Research. Results: It was elicited that the dental educational system is more an exam oriented approach rather than knowledge oriented one. It was found that there was an unfavourable response for transparency in dental education. Analysis showed that due to fewer seats in the government sector, higher education in dentistry is a nightmare after completion of B.D.S course. It was also revealed that the quality of life in rural areas can be improved by providing financial assistance for setting up practise and peripheral centres by the government through educational institutions, as was the opinion of the faculty members. Conclusion: Efforts are to be taken by the government and DCI to improve the ''Quality of Life" of both professionals and public by providing more learning opportunities, by providing more U.G and P.G seats in government sector, to enhance the level of knowledge and attitude of the dental students and to improve the dentist's patient ratio in rural areas.
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  921 49 -
Genetics in Public Health - Rarely Explored
YB Aswini, Varun Sardana
July-December 2010, 8(16):121-128
The availability and integration of genetic information into our understanding of normal and abnormal growth and development are driving important changes in health care. These changes have fostered the hope that the availability of genetic information will promote a better understanding of disease aetiology and pennit early, even pre-symptomatic diagnosis and preventive intervention to avoid disease onset. Hence, our aim was to review and provide the insight into the role of genetics in public health and its scope as well as barriers. The use of genetics keeping in the essentials of public health service along with their goals and essential public health functions are discussed. From the era of eugenics to the present era this area has seen many turns, in which genetists have put through their effort to tie together the strings of both molecular genetics and public health. Though still the dark clouds of eugenics, the predictive power of genes, genetic reductionism, non-modifiable risk factors, individuals or populations?, resource allocation, commercial imperative, discrimination and understanding and education are hanging above. The technological and scientific advances that have fundamentally changed how we perceive human diseases fuel expectations for this proactive health.
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  918 49 -
Providing Oral Care to "Special Group"- A Challenge to Public Health Dentist
Jyotsna Srinagesh, Pushpanjali Krishnappa
July-December 2010, 8(16):60-62
India has more than 2.19 Crore population with special needs. The oral health of this population is greatly neglected. It is the ethical and moral responsibility of dentists as a whole and Public health dentists in particular to address the oral health needs of this "special population". An effort was made by the Dept of Public Health Dentistry, M S Ramaiah Dental College & Hospital to provide comprehensive care to bed ridden and home bound patients. Following is the report of the challenges faced while delivering care to this special group of patients.
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  917 49 -
Life Course Analysis: An Oral Health Prospective
Paramjeet Singh, Sabyasachi Saha, GV Jagannatha, S Sahana
July-December 2010, 8(16):199-201
There is an increasing interest in conceptualizing chronic disease aetiology within a life course framework. This approach analyses the effects of physical and social exposures along the individual's life on chronic disease risk. It provides a more comprehensive approach than traditional risk factor epidemiology as it seeks to understand when and how particular exposures act on later health outcomes. There are many studies linking conditions in adulthood to oral disease and tooth loss. Therefore when assessing the effects of factors operating at different stages of an individuals life on his /her risk of general as well as oral disease one use information from across the whole life course.
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  912 48 -
When to refer to an oral surgeon? - A pilot survey
S Shankar, P Sureshkannan
July-December 2010, 8(16):168-173
Objective: A survey was conducted in two institutions among the house surgeons and the teaching staffs, to study the self perceived threshold and reasons for referral to specialist for oral surgical needs. Methods: A pilot survey was conducted among the house surgeons B.D.S., and M.D.S., staffs of two dental colleges. A two page questionnaire was circulated among the participants. The survey form was designed to collect data regarding the participant's qualification, age, gender, experience and oral surgical conditions which could be managed by themselves, which they refer and reasons for referring. Results: From the two dental colleges 192 replies were received. The majority of the response was from house surgeons (80.2%) and the remainders were from the B.D.S and M.D.S. staffs of 10.4% and 9.4% respectively. Of these respondents, 90% can manage dental extractions when compared to other minor surgical procedures. Above 50% of participants were able to manage transalveolar extraction and biopsy. Above 45% can manage third molar impaction and more than 15% can manage canine impaction. Above 25% can manage Dentoalveolar fracture and Apisectomy. Above 60% can manage minor soft tissue injury and only 5.2% were manage to do dental implants. About 83% of participants attempt simple dentoalveolar procedures before referring to an oral surgeon. Whereas more than 80% of participants refer patient requiring placement of implant and complex surgery in medically compromised patients to a specialist care before attempting. But only 2.6% of the respondents only responded that they can manage the fracture of maxillofacial region.
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  896 44 -
"World No Tobacco Day - 2010" - A Report

July-December 2010, 8(16):228-229
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  759 43 -
FROMTHE EDITORS DESK
From the editor's desk
MB Aswath Narayanan
July-December 2010, 8(16):0-0
Full text not available  [PDF]
  600 61 -
FROM THE PRESIDENTS DESK
From the president's Desk
RK Bali
July-December 2010, 8(16):0-0
Full text not available  [PDF]
  480 67 -