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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-September 2022
Volume 20 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 227-327

Online since Monday, September 12, 2022

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PRESIDENTS MESSAGE  

President's message p. 227
Sabyasachi Saha
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_191_22  
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HONORARY SECRETARY’S MESSAGE Top

Honorary Secretary's message p. 228
L Vamsi Krishna Reddy
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_192_22  
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FROM EDITORS DESK Top

From editors desk p. 229
KR Sowmya
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_193_22  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Knowledge, attitude, and practice of probiotics for oral health among dental students: A cross-sectional study Highly accessed article p. 230
Lakshmi Krishnan, Saravanan Poorni, MS Nivedhitha, Manali Ramakrishnan Srinivasan
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_23_22  
Background: Over the years, probiotics have emerged as successful supplements for oral care management. Despite their extensive benefits and uses, their application in dental care is less due to limited knowledge about them among dentists. Aim: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice in using probiotics for oral health among dental students of Chennai city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 209 dental students through Google Forms. Pretested questionnaire with 14 close-ended questions was used. Ethical clearance and consent were obtained before the study. Statistical test was computed using SPSS version 20, and P value was kept at < 0.05 for significance. Results: Majority of the participants (86%) were aware of the probiotics and its use, but hardly 19% of them had put their knowledge into practice. A statistically significant difference was obtained between the male and female participants with the knowledge domain of the questionnaire (P = 0.021*, 0.006*, 0.048*). Conclusion: From the present study, we can conclude that the participants were well aware of the term probiotics but hesitated to prescribe it to their patients as their awareness of the availability of probiotics was less.
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Assessment of perceived stress levels and its sources among indian students in Dental Colleges of Odisha - A cross-sectional study Highly accessed article p. 234
Sonali Sarkar, Dhirendra Kumar Singh, Riddhi Awasthi
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_216_21  
Background: Dental school is a stressful experience for students as they face wide-ranging challenges related to patient care and pursuing academic excellence. Aim: The aim of the study is to estimate the psychological stress levels and its sources among undergraduate students at dental colleges in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of 308 undergraduate students in their 3rd year, 4th year, and internship from three private dental schools in Odisha. A self-administered questionnaire was designed and distributed where participants marked the stress levels caused by various academic and nonacademic stressors on a five-point Likert scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). Demographic data of gender and year of study were also collected on the same questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS v27 was used to compute descriptive statistics, to perform tests for reliability and validity of the survey instrument and to perform two sample t-test for comparison of stressors with gender and one-way ANOVA for comparison of stressors year of study as factors. Results: Of the 300 completed questionnaires submitted, 49.7% of the participants were males (n = 151) and 50.3% were females (n = 149). Third-year students reported moderate stresses (mean stress >=3) due to factors related to curriculum structure, long classroom hours, reduced recreation time, homesickness, and hostel food. Fourth-year students reported severe stress (mean stress >=4) originating from stressors like completion of clinical quota and comparison with other professions. Interns reported severe stress (mean stress >=4) originating from stressors like family's expectations and fear of failure. There was a statistically significant difference in female participants who reported elevated stress compared to their male counterparts in dealing with stress related to workload and training (P = 0.008, two-tailed two-sample t-test). Conclusions: Students reported most stress originating from issues related to clinical workload burden, comparison with peers, family expectations, and personal relationship issues. We recommend that dentistry schools act with urgency to alleviate severe stressors with the formation of student advisory committees and appointment of counselors who can advocate for dental students' psychological well-being.
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Impact of dentures on oral health-related quality of life in assisted living facility elders, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh p. 241
Parveen Sultana Shaik, Anuhya Medapati, Srinivas Pachava, Nijampatnam P M Pavani, Srinivas Ravoori, Chinnababu Palli
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_202_21  
Background: Dentures can improve dental function and appearance in older people, but they may reduce oral health-related quality of life. Further research is needed to determine how denture wearing affects the general health and well-being of assisted living home residents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was performed among 587 inmates of old-age homes in Andhra Pradesh with a self-administered, pretested questionnaire that consists of two sections. The first section of the questionnaire includes information on demographic factors and duration of stay in an old-age home, and data about denture maintenance and usage. The second section of the questionnaire consists of an Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP). For data presentation and analysis, IBM SPSS Statistics was used; descriptive statistics, the Chi-square test, and correlation were employed. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In this study, the total satisfaction rate of complete denture (CD) users with good responses was 21.4% and for removable partial denture (RPD) users was 23.7%, which was statistically significant and was positively correlated. The overall OHIP for 1–5 years of denture users was high, with a mean of 53.8 ± 78.102, and a statistically significant difference existed between the CD and RPD users (P = 0.028). Conclusion: The overall satisfaction rate of RPD users was higher than the CD users and esthetics mainly impacts the satisfaction of dentures and the overall OHIP for 1–5 years of denture users was high.
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Evaluation of hand hygiene practices among patients visiting dental college of purvanchal region – A cross-sectional study p. 247
Mahesh Ravindra Khairnar, Vinay Kumar Srivastava, Ananta Kusumakar, Adit Srivastava, Rahul Agrawal, Akhilesh Chandra, PG Naveen Kumar, Zainab Akram
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_217_21  
Background: Effective hand hygiene is one of the most cost-efficient means of preventing infectious diseases in the community. Studies conducted to assess the hand hygiene practices of the general population in India are relatively limited. The present study was conducted with the aim to assess hand hygiene practices among the participants visiting the outpatient department (OPD) of a dental institute in the Purvanchal region in India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 880 participants visiting the OPD of a dental college in the Purvanchal region. The data were collected using a pretested questionnaire focusing on the hand hygiene practices of the participants. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and the level of significance was set at 5%. Results: Results showed that 98.5% of the respondents used soap/antiseptic liquid soap or hand sanitizer. The frequency of handwashing increased with the improvement in socioeconomic status, with almost 70% of upper-class participants washing their hands daily 5–6 times or more (P = 0.001). A significant association was seen between education and extension of handwashing (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Majority of the population were using soap and water for handwashing which shows that people are aware that proper hand hygiene is necessary to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, especially COVID-19. However, more work is needed to educate people from lower socioeconomic status about good hand hygiene practices.
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Utilization of dental health-care services by accredited social health activist and anganwadi workers in lucknow district: A cross-sectional study p. 252
Dyashwari Devi Khoisnam, L Vamsi Krishna Reddy, Pooja M Sinha, BS Goutham, Sonali Saha
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_168_21  
Background: Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) and Anganwadi workers are grassroots-level health activists who are involved in health education and community mobilization and form a bond between the community and the primary health-care delivery system in India. The cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the dental health-care utilization and to estimate the dentition and periodontal status of ASHA and Anganwadi workers. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the primary health centers and subcenters of Lucknow District. ASHA and Anganwadi workers presented on the day of the examination were included in the study. The study pro forma was used to record demographic details and dental utilization. Dentition status and periodontal status were used to record dental caries and periodontal status using the World Health Organization Oral Health Assessment Form 2013. Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 21; descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and regression analysis were used to assess factors related to health-care utilization and P < 0.005 was considered statistically significant. Results: The final study sample comprised 500 health-care workers (220 ASHA and 280 Anganwadi workers). Among the study population, 30% utilized dental services and was found to be statistically significant with age, occupation, and oral findings. However, 56.0% had both dental caries and periodontal diseases followed by dental caries‒32.0%, periodontal disease‒8.0%. There was a significant difference (P < 0.005) in the proportion of dental care utilization and oral diseases among participants. Conclusions: The dental care utilization was found to be short and is not comparative to the diseases among participants.
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Awareness, anxiety, and stress among health-care workers deployed in swab collection during the COVID-19 pandemic in Andhra Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional study p. 257
Mounika Konduru, R V S Krishna Kumar, Chandrasekhara Reddy V, Srinivasulu Gomasani, Veguru Prathyusha Reddy, P Symon Prasanth
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_18_21  
Background: Swab collection is a challenging task, and the health-care workers (HCWs) have to face many difficulties while collecting swab samples of suspected patients. They often need to counsel the suspects as some think they do not have an infection but carry fear. Appropriate precautions should be taken in collecting specimens since this may expose HCWs to respiratory secretions from the suspects. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess awareness, anxiety, and stress among HCWs deployed in swab collection during the COVID-19 pandemic in Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 HCWs filled out the questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. Google Forms were sent through WhatsApp and email. The participants were asked to forward the link to other known people who were also deployed in swab collection. The study took place in Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, for 1 month. Results: About 73.5% of HCWs underwent training in swab collection. 90% of the undergraduates and 89% of the postgraduates were unhappy while staying away from family. Most of the study participants continued to wear personal protective equipment until completion of the working period. 39 of 44 undergraduates felt that swab collection was a high-risk job, and 42 of 55 postgraduates felt the same. Conclusion: Most of the HCWs are unhappy staying away from their family while deployed in swab collection. Majority of them reported swab collection as a high-risk job. As they are frontline workers, an enhanced variety of support should be offered. Psychosocial support and effective measures should be made readily available to them.
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Relationship between academic procrastination and self-esteem among dental students in Nellore, Andhra Pradesh: A cross-sectional study p. 263
M Snehitha, Chandrasekhara Reddy Vuyyuru, R V. S Krishna Kumar, Srinivasulu Gomasani, V Prathyusha
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_49_21  
Background: Procrastination is an extremely prevalent phenomenon and pernicious form of self-regulatory failure. Self-esteem is used to describe peoples' beliefs and feelings about their overall self-worth. Procrastinators have found to carry a heavy cost due to the inability to abide by these values, thereby affecting all domains of life. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between academic procrastination and self-esteem among dental students in Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2021. The sample consisted of 505 dental students. Data were collected through a questionnaire using the Tuckman Academic Procrastination Scale and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS software version 14.0. Independent Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation test were performed. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results indicated that a weak positive correlation (r = 0.02) existed between academic procrastination scores and self-esteem scores. There was a significant difference in mean academic procrastination scores and self-esteem scores among undergraduates and postgraduates. Undergraduates reported higher self-esteem (25.7 ± 1.93) and lower academic procrastination (25.2 ± 1.70) which were found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The current study found that students who procrastinate more have comparatively lower self-esteem and those with high self-esteem procrastinate less.
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Influence of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on serum hemoglobin levels among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study p. 267
Jatinder Singh, Inderpreet Kaur, Gurpreet Inder Singh, RG Saini, Hemant Kumar Gupta, Rakendra Singh
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_117_21  
Aim: The present study was carried out to examine the association between periodontitis and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Type 2 diabetes mellitus adults. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on serum levels of HbA1c in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and moderate-to-severe periodontitis. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 78 Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients aged 30–70 years suffering from chronic generalized periodontitis. The patients were selected randomly from among the patients reporting at medicine outpatient department from July 2018 to August 2019. They were assessed for the presence or absence of gingival bleeding, presence or absence of periodontal pockets, and loss of attachment using the Community Periodontal Index (World Health Organization, 2013). Data were analyzed using the statistical package SPSS (version 21.0) and paired t-test at P < 0.05. Results: The mean reduction in haemoglobin levels of patients with moderate to severe periodontitis were significantly reduced by 1.19 in Group I, 0.51 in Group II, and 0.09 in Group III respectively after 3 months of nonsurgical periodontal therapy. This periodontal therapy was clinically effective and had a significant effect on the participant's glycemic control. Conclusion: This periodontal therapy was clinically effective and had a significant effect on the participant's glycemic control.
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Antibacterial activity of garlic extract, tea tree oil, and its mouthwashes against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus: An In vivo study p. 271
Pooja Latti, R Subramaniam, Sakeenabi Basha, GM Prashant, P G Naveen Kumar, Sushanth Hirekalmath
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_197_21  
Background: A wide group of microorganisms is identified from carious lesions, of which Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and propagation of dental caries. Mouthrinses can deliver therapeutic ingredients and benefits to all accessible surfaces in the mouth. With the increasing use of drugs, microorganisms are attaining resistance to commonly used antibiotics, which leads to the downfall of the effectiveness of conventional medicines, and therefore, a search for new antimicrobial agents has become necessary. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of mouthwashes containing garlic extract (GE), tea tree oil (TTO), and chlorhexidine (CHX) on salivary S. mutans and Lactobacillus. Methods: An in vivo parallel study was conducted among 90 18–25-year-old subjects. GE (2.5%) and TTO (0.2%) mouthwashes were prepared for use in the study. Commercially available CHX mouthwash (0.12%) was used as a positive control. The study duration was 5 weeks. The participants were randomly assigned into three groups with 30 participants in each group. To assess the residual effects following discontinuation of mouthwashes, saliva samples were collected on the 18th and 24th days. One-way ANOVA was used to assess the mean colony difference. Results: No significant difference in the counts of S. mutans and Lactobacillus was observed at baseline and 6th day between all the three groups. On the 12th day, the highest reduction in S. mutans and Lactobacillus counts was observed following the use of TTO mouthwash, followed by CHX mouthwash. The reduction in the count of S. mutans was significantly higher in the TTO group on the 24th day comparable to the garlic mouthwash group, followed by the CHX mouthwash group. Conclusion: Both GE and TTO mouthwashes demonstrated a significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and Lactobacillus in vivo, with TTO demonstrating the greatest effect.
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Prevalence of dental fluorosis among 12-15-Year-Old schoolchildren in Cheyyur Taluk, Chengalpattu District: A cross-sectional survey p. 277
Rajeswary Kumar, K V Vijay Kumar, S Veena Dharani, S Kalaivani, Vidya Sekhar
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_149_21  
Background: Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a public health problem in India. The available data suggest that 15 states in India are endemic to fluorosis (fluoride level in drinking water >1.5 mg/l) which includes Tamil Nadu. In Tamil Nadu, almost 19 districts have been reported to be affected by dental fluorosis. Aim and Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children in Cheyyur taluk between the age groups of 12 and 15 years. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in the age group of 12–15 years. After obtaining ethical clearance and permission from the randomly chosen eight government schools of Cheyyur taluk, demographic data and American Dental Association Type III clinical examination was conducted. The dental fluorosis status of the children was assessed using the Modified Dean's Fluorosis Index (1942) and the data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16. In descriptive statistics, a Chi-square test was carried out to find the association among dental fluorosis and demographic characteristics such as age and gender and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The study sample comprised of 1089 children of which, 491 (45.1%) were boys and 598 (54.9%) were girls. Overall dental fluorosis prevalence was found to be 28.6%. Conclusion: Mild and very mild form of dental fluorosis was the most common form prevalent among the population, whereas the severe form of dental fluorosis was not found. Statistically significant difference exists between different age groups and no difference exists among gender.
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Factors associated with women's autonomy regarding dental health care utilization in Bengaluru - A cross sectional study p. 281
BK Aparna, R Yashoda, Manjunath P Puranik
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_60_22  
Background: Preventive dental care benefits people of all ages and genders' oral health. Among many conceptual implications, autonomy suggests the power to alter one's fate and environment, among other things. Little is known about women's autonomy and factors influencing dental health-care utilization in India. This study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude, and oral hygiene practices and its association with women's autonomy and dental care utilization. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 women aged 18 years or older in Bengaluru Urban District. Questionnaires were employed to assess women's autonomy, knowledge, attitude, oral hygiene practices, and dental care service utilization. Descriptive statistics and bivariate and regression analyses were carried out. The P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: More than half of the women (61.3%) had a high level of autonomy. Women with a high level of autonomy had more knowledge, a more positive attitude, and better dental hygiene habits. Autonomy, knowledge, and attitude were all significant independent predictors of women's use of dental care services. Conclusions: Women's autonomy was found to influence knowledge, attitude, and oral hygiene practices which in turn are associated with dental health-care service utilization.
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Relationship between oral health status and oral health-related quality of life among patients with temporomandibular disorders in Bengaluru City: A cross-sectional comparative study p. 287
Pallavi Pawar, Manjunath P Puranik, Namita Shanbhag
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_14_22  
Background: Most of the oral diseases have consequences that can affect the quality of life (QoL). Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) constitute a series of clinical problems that affect muscles of mastication, the temporomandibular joint, along with their associated structures. The perception and feelings of these patients regarding their oral health are often ignored. Objective: The aim is to assess the relationship between oral health status and oral health-related QoL (OHRQoL) in participants with TMD compared to the Non-TMD group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among 320 participants (TMD 160 and Non-TMD 160 participants, respectively) in various hospitals of Bengaluru city. The Oral Health Impact Profile for TMDs (OHIP) questionnaire was administered for evaluating the OHRQoL. Oral health status was assessed using World Health Organization Oral Health Assessment Form for Adults, 2013. Chi-square tests, Pearson's correlation tests, and one-way ANOVA were applied for statistical analysis. The value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: TMD patients exhibited worse OHIP-TMDs scores when compared to the Non-TMD group (63.2 ± 3.78 vs. 2.15 ± 3.21). The mean Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (P < 0.001), gingival bleeding (P < 0.001), pockets P < 0.001), and loss of attachment (P = 0.677) was significantly higher in the TMD group when compared to the non-TMD group. TMDs negatively affected the OHRQoL in the TMD group when compared to the non-TMD group. Conclusions: OHRQoL and oral health status are found to be poor among the TMD group when compared to the non-TMD group. There was a relationship between OHRQoL and oral health status among the TMD group and non-TMD group.
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Relationship between psychological status and self-perception of halitosis among young adults with moderation by oral health status in Bengaluru City: A cross-sectional study p. 293
R Sudha Rani, Manjunath P Puranik, SR Uma
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_71_22  
Background: Halitosis is a term defining a common concern of individuals with a bad odor originating from their mouth. Halitosis is a symptom related to both somatic and emotional status. There is a need to investigate the relationship between psychological status and halitosis with the moderation by oral health. Aim: To assess the relationship between psychological status and self-perception of halitosis among young adults with moderation by oral health status (OHS). Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 self-perceived halitosis (SPH) and 160 halitosis suggestive (HS) young adults in Bengaluru city. Questionnaire for self-perception of halitosis and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) questionnaire for psychological status were used. Halitosis was measured using organoleptic test. OHS was assessed using the World Health Organization Oral Health Assessment form for Adults, 2013. Independent t-test, Chi-square test, and multivariate linear regression were performed. A moderation analysis was carried out to examine the effect of OHS. The P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age was 21.56 ± 1.84 years and 23.8 ± 1.93 years in the self-perceived halitosis and HS groups, respectively. Questionnaire for self-perception of halitosis majority of them experienced bad breath for the past 3 months; were hesitant to talk to others; felt uneasy; avoided social interaction, and the workplace was affected. The mean SCL-90-R score of SPH (291.46 ± 13.17) was significantly greater than HS (137.06 ± 25.09) (P < 0.001). Most of the participants in SPH had malodor and 50% had no odor in HS group. The mean Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth were 2.37 ± 3.92 and 1.87 ± 2.86 in SPH and HS groups, respectively (P = 0.19). The mean of teeth with gingival bleeding was significantly higher in SPH (3.46 ± 3.87) when compared to HS groups (1.61 ± 2.44) (P < 0.001). On multivariate linear regression, there was a significant relationship noted between the self-perceived halitosis group and SCL-90-R (R2 = 0.07; P < 0.001). In the moderation analysis, the effect of oral health and self-perception of halitosis was significant with psychological status. Conclusions: There is a relationship between the psychological status and self-perception of halitosis with moderation by OHS.
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COVID-19 outbreak: Knowledge, attitude, and practice among dental students in a tertiary care hospital: A cross-sectional study p. 298
C Bharath, K Priya Deepa Lakshmi, S Venkata Lakshmi, N Saravanan
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_55_21  
Background: Dental care settings have the risk of COVID-19 infection due to the aerosols generated during procedures, handling of sharps, and proximity of the dentist to the patient's oropharyngeal region. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional online survey among undergraduate and postgraduate dental students studying in a tertiary care hospital employed a convenient snowball sampling technique. The survey instrument consisted of pretested and prevalidated questionnaire comprising demographic characteristics, 14 items on knowledge domain, 6 items on attitude domain, and 4 items on practice domain modified from a previously published questionnaire on COVID-19. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0 to perform the Chi-square test, MannWhitney, KruskalWallis, Spearman's correlation, and linear regression analysis. Results: The study population comprised 79 (28.9%) males and 194 (71.1%) females, with approximately 53% belonging to the age group of <20 years. Based on our results, the majority of the general population had inadequate (42.1%) knowledge about the disease with a mean knowledge score was 22.82 ± 1.98. Conclusion: This study showed that the dental students had an inadequate level of knowledge and negative attitude in their outlook on overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic. Various health education programs are necessary, particularly targeting students with lower knowledge regarding COVID-19 are essential for encouraging adequate knowledge, positive attitude, and maintain safe dental practices.
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Status of public sector dental health-care services in Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh, India p. 304
Chandrasekhara Reddy Vuyyuru, Manickam Ponnaiah, Rajeshree Narayan Rangari
DOI:10.4103/jiaphd.jiaphd_98_22  
Background and Objectives: Primary health centers (PHCs) are the foundation of rural health services in India. The nonavailability of reports on the status of dental care services at public health-care centers in rural Andhra Pradesh prompted us to describe the status of dental care services provided at public health-care centers in the Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, based on the Indian Public Health Standards (IPHSs) guidelines. Data were collected on the dental health workforce, equipment, and facilities available, dental care services provided in all government dental care units, and dental care services provided by PHCs without dentists in the Nellore district, from dental and medical doctors, respectively. The descriptive statistics (frequencies) were performed describing the availability of workforce, equipment, and facilities, and the type of dental care services provided. Results: Of 95 public health-care centers in the Nellore district, only 18 centers provided dental care services. No single center was furnished with the prescribed dental health workforce, equipment, and facilities to render comprehensive dental care services to an optimum level according to IPHS guidelines. There were neither oral health promotional activities nor outreach programs targeting rural children, families, and communities carried out at these PHCs as per the IPHS guidelines. Conclusion: An inadequate dental health workforce, deficient dental equipment, and facilities, and very limited dental care services were found at these public health-care centers in the Nellore district, making these services almost nonexistent to rural populations.
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IAPHD NEWS Top

IAPHD News p. 310

DOI:10.4103/2319-5932.355896  
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